Kyoto Protocol Is an International Treaty for
No scientific panel of national or international renown represents a formal opinion that deviates from any of these main points. The last national or international scientific panel to abandon Dissens was the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, which in 2007 updated its statement to its current non-binding position.  Other organizations, particularly those focused on geology, also occupy non-binding positions. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that aims to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases. The Protocol was adopted at a conference in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 and became international law on 16 February 2005. The World Bank (2010) noted that the Kyoto Protocol had had little impact on reducing global emissions growth. The treaty was negotiated in 1997, but by 2006 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 24%.  The World Bank (2010) also stated that the Treaty provided limited financial support to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change.  (1997) International Agreement on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
November 2, 1998 – 160 nations meet in Buenos Aires to elaborate the details of the protocol and create the “Buenos Aires Plan of Action”. The United States signed the Protocol on November 12, 1998, during the Clinton Presidency. To become binding on the United States, however, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already passed the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution of 1997, in which he expressed disapproval of any international agreement that did not commit developing countries to reducing their emissions and would “seriously harm the U.S. economy.” The resolution was adopted by 95 votes to 0.  Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty, it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification. Belarus, Malta and Turkey were included in Annex I but did not have Kyoto targets for the first cycle.  The United States had a Kyoto target of a 7% reduction from 1990 levels, but did not ratify the treaty.  If the United States had ratified the Kyoto Protocol, the average percentage reduction in total GHG emissions for the Annex I group would have been a 5.2% reduction from the base year. :26 July 23, 2001 – Negotiators from 178 countries meet in Germany and agree to adopt the Protocol without the participation of the United States. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia declared that they would not meet other Kyoto targets.  On December 12, 2011, the Canadian government announced its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol at any time with effect from December 15, 2012.  Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% higher than in 1990.
The Harper administration prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and deprioritized the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent stressed Canada`s responsibility for the “huge fines” under the treaty if it does not withdraw.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward.  The Harper government has stated that it will find a “made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision received a generally negative response from representatives of other countries that ratified it.  December 1-11, 1997 – The Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC is held in Kyoto, Japan. Nearly 200 countries participate in and adopt the first international treaty on the management and reduction of greenhouse gases. Japan`s national policy to achieve its Kyoto target includes the purchase of AAUs sold under GIS.  In 2010, Japan and Japanese companies were the main customers of AAUs. :53 In the international carbon market, AAU trade represents only a small portion of the total market value. :9 In 2010, 97% of trade on the international carbon market was governed by the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS).
:9 However, companies covered by the EU ETS are not able to use AAUs to meet their emission ceilings.  Andorra, Palestine, South Sudan, the United States and, following their withdrawal on December 15, 2012, Canada are the only Parties to the UNFCCC that are not Parties to the Protocol. Furthermore, the Protocol does not apply to the observer for the Holy See of the UNFCCC. Although the Kingdom of the Netherlands has approved the Protocol for the whole Kingdom, it has not deposited an instrument of ratification for Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten or the Caribbean Netherlands.  The UNFCCC explains the need for action, but does not contain agreement on specific emission reductions […].